The parasite has developed resistance to every anti-malarial drug introduced for wide-scale treatment. However, the spread of resistance may be reversible. Is hydroxychloroquine sulfate a steroid Chloroquine treats Chloroquine mechanism of drug action and resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Slater AF1. Author information 1Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030. Quinoline-containing drugs such as chloroquine and quinine have had a long and successful history in antimalarial chemotherapy. Since the first documentation of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance in the 1950s, resistant strains have appeared throughout East and West Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America. The effectiveness of chloroquine against P. falciparum has declined as resistant strains of the parasite evolved. They effectively neutralize the drug via a mechanism that drains chloroquine away from the digestive vacuole. Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. Within a decade of the removal of drug pressure, the molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant malaria had disappeared and the drug was shown to have excellent clinical efficacy. Malawi was the first country to discontinue chloroquine use due to widespread resistance. Chloroquine cytotoxic falicparum Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine supporting chemo., Chloroquine - Wikipedia Plaquenil visual field screeningPlaquenil generic 200 mg couponHydroxychloroquine guidelines ukGlaucoma and plaquenilPlaquenil nerve damage Find patient medical information for Chloroquine Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. Chloroquine Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions.. Chloroquine C18H26ClN3 - PubChem. Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated.. P. falciparum 1. Before using chloroquine for prophylaxis, it should be ascertained whether chloroquine is appropriate for use in the region to be visited by the traveler. Chloroquine should not be used for treatment of infections acquired in areas of chloroquine resistance or malaria occurring in patients where Chloroquine prophylaxis has failed. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. Activity in Vitro and in Clinical Infections Chloroquine is active against the erythrocytic forms of susceptible strains of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium vivax.